split (6)

verb physical_contact_deformation



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-ɣátV

Proto-Dakota *-ɣáta

Lakota gálgata, ya- ‘make forked with the mouth, prevaricate’ EB:618 , gáta, ka- ‘spread out, as the hands or fingers’ EB:272 , gáta, na- ‘stretch out the foot’ EB:342 , gáta, wa- ‘make marks, mark or cut with a knife; carve or hack’ EB:515 , gáta, yu- ‘stretch out the hand and arm upwards, swear’ EB:636

Dakota ġáta , †ɣáta ‘forked, pronged’ SRR:120b

Proto-Dhegiha *ɣáhta < *ɣát-ka

Kanza/Kaw wahǘkka ɣátta ‘fork’ RR

Quapaw -ɣáttą, di- ‘stretch apart’ RR

General comment

Quapaw nasalization is probably a grammaticalized reflex of Proto-Siouan *ʔųdo, make’ which makes an active verb of this stative stem: Proto-Dhegiha *ɣát-ka ʔǫ with the normal *tk > *kt > ht ~ tt development common to DH and Chiwere.

The final vowel of the independent stem was probably *-E, but since Dakotan extends -a analogically and the form is always suffixed in DH, it is impossible to know for certain.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources