sister (1) mSiEl



Proto-Siouan *wį́he

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-wía < **-wíhe

Crow išbía ‘his sister’ RG, GG:90, RGG:22

Hidatsa itawía ‘his elder sister’ J

Pre-Mandan *tawį•he

Mandan wį́•he ‘woman’ RTC , kótawįhe ‘his sister’ H:285 , ptawį́• ‘my sister (male speaker)’ RTC

General comment

The offspring numbering system, which shares several look-alikes with ‘man’s sister’ (e.g., DH wihésecond daughter’), seems to center on MVS and represents an innovation in that subgroup. Proto-Siouan -he is lost in MVS; thus the two forms must be historically separate. In fact, this form is the pan-Siouan root for ‘woman’, with the alienable possessive prefix. Matthews (1959) has argued that those forms that are transparently alienably possessed represent innovations, in which case this is probably a replacement for an earlier term. Tutelo †ko•mihą• , kōmqāñ (N) ‘girl’ (H.) may be related.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources