set upright

verb physical_contact_manipulation


Proto-Siouan *-hsa

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-hcE

Crow pátchi ‘stick in ground, set up’ GG:53, RGG:29

Hidatsa -hcE, pá- ‘set upright, offer to holy things’ J

Pre-Mandan *-še-

Mandan -šeʔš, pa- ‘he offers it ceremonially’ H:225

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-za


Lakota -zá, pa- ‘put up sticks or bushes’ EB:437b , ṗazá


Hoocąk -zá, boo- ‘drive into the ground, as stake or pole’ KM:106 , booza

Proto-Dhegiha *-za

Kanza/Kaw bóza ‘plant a post or stick in the ground’ JOD

Quapaw ną́za ‘fence’ RR , póza ‘plant a post in the ground’ RR , kazá ‘whip’ RR



Biloxi paxá , †paxá ‘stuck in’ D&S:246b

General comment

The Mandan, Crow, and Hidatsa roots appear to be that found in rušE ‘grasp, hold’, which corresponds with Lakota yúza, same meaning. Convincing evidence of cognacy may involve the semantics (and mechanics) of making offerings in these northern societies. The Hidatsa and Mandan forms certainly look good, and, although borrowing is not uncommon between these two languages, it cannot be presumed. The ‘stick upright’ sets match well. The Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *hc Proto-Mississipi-Valley *z equation is an interesting and uncommon one but support from the semantics of these forms is strong. Our Proto-Siouan reconstruction is provisional.

Cf. ‘grasp > hold, take’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources