scrape > scratching noise, scraping noise, sweep

verb perceptual_auditory


Proto-Siouan *kʔá•xE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-ka•xE

Crow -kaaxi, dúu- ‘scratch, make marks’ GG:45, RGG:26 , -kaaxi, páa- ‘scratch’ RGG:97 , -kaxí, da- ‘sweep aside, away’ GG:41

Hidatsa -ka•xE, ara- ‘scratch with toe’ J , -ka•xE, nú- ‘make single scratch, mark off, measure’ J , -ka•xE, pá- ‘make mark by dragging’ J


Mandan kax, ra- ‘eat corn from cob’ H:104 , írukaxka ‘willow rake’ H:106


Proto-Dhegiha *kʔáɣe

Kanza/Kaw yükʔákʔaɣe ‘scratching or rattling sounds’ RR

Osage kʔáxe ‘sound of dishes scraping together’ RR

Quapaw kakʔáxe ‘make scraping sound’ JOD



Ofo dūkhā´fĕ , †du•khá•fe ‘scratch’ D&S:323b, JSS

General comment

Here the Ofo vowel matches, but the fricative is different, cf. ‘scrape > smooth, shave (1)’. It appears that within a given subgroup either *kʔa- or *kʔe forms predominate. Cf. ‘dig > scratch’. This root may be secondarily derived from ‘scrape > scratch, grate, rake’ q.v. The Crow, Hidatsa, and Mandan forms may actually go with ‘make marks > mark, scratch’ q.v. Catawba kαkαsənαscratch’ (Sp-8) (analysis obscure) is phonetically similar.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources