sacred (1a)

verb spiritual


Proto-Siouan *xópE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *xupá• < **xopáhe (?)

Crow baaxpáa , †ba•xpá• ‘holy, sacred’ GG:24, RGG:84

Hidatsa xupá• ‘holy, sacred’ J

Pre-Mandan *xoprį

Mandan xopįrį́ʔš ‘it’s holy’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xópE


Chiwere waxóbe ‘consecrated, blessed, holy’ JGT:87 , waxóbrį ‘person with supernatural power’ JDH

Proto-Dhegiha *xópe

Omaha-Ponca qubé , †xobé ‘sacred’ , †waxóbe ‘sacred thing’

Kanza/Kaw waxóbe ‘sacred bundle’ JOD, RR

Osage xúbe , †xópe ‘holy, supernatuarl power, sanctity’ LF:221a , waxóbe , †waxópe ‘talisman’ LF:208a

Quapaw wažį́ka xówe ‘eagle, holy bird’ RR

General comment

Mandan and the second Chiwere form look like a compound of *xop and *rį, the latter possibly being ‘live, exist’. Cf. ‘sacred (1b)’ for further cognates with the Mandan forms. Very frequently, Crow/Hidatsa forms in -a• correlate with *-he forms in other languages or with doublet -ia < *ihe forms in Crow/Hidatsa. Thus our Proto-Crow-Hidatsa suggestion here. It is impossible to tell whether the postulated form represents a Proto-Crow-Hidatsa innovation or an inherited form (with loss of -he and reanalysis in Proto-Mississipi-Valley).

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources