run (2)

verb physical_motion


Proto-Siouan *wa-htą́he


Crow basáa ‘run’ GG:28

Pre-Mandan *ptÉh-

Mandan ptéhoʔš ‘he’s running’ RTC


Proto-Dhegiha *htą́-_rį

Omaha-Ponca tóⁿthiⁿ , †ttą́ðį ‘run’ MAS:150

Kanza/Kaw ttą́ye ~ ttąyį ‘human to run’ RR

Osage tóⁿthiⁿ , †htą́ðį ‘run (two-legged)’ LF:156a

Quapaw ttónį ‘run’ RR


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *athą́hi

Biloxi taⁿhíⁿ, táⁿhiⁿ , †tą́hį ‘run’ D&S:271b

Ofo ā´thoⁿhi , †á•thąhi ‘run’ D&S:322a, JSS , abatxa´abĕ , †abatháʔabe ‘I am going to run’ D&S:322a

General comment

The Mandan, Biloxi, and Ofo forms look like he-final roots. Biloxi seems to have spread the nasalization to the final syllable. Loss of nasalization in Mandan, though frequently paralleled in other words, is not as yet accounted for. Although there are irregularities in this set, it does appear that DH may have lost post tonic *he, as it normally does, and reanalysed the verb as a compound with Proto-Dhegiha *_(r)į ‘be in motion’. This was a natural reanalysis because *mą-_( r)į ‘walk’ presented such a close parallel.

It should be noted however that the presence here, whether as an innovation or retention, of į is an areal feature found only in the South. There are still many unanswered questions about this set. Cf. ‘walk (1)’. The Crow vowel length here is probably due to syllable collapse, which obscures possible evidence for vowel length in Proto-Siouan.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources