red (1b), red hawthorn

verb perceptual_visual_color


Proto-Siouan *šE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *hišE

Crow híšši ‘red’ RGG:85, GG:48

Hidatsa hišÉ ‘red’ J

Pre-Mandan *se

Mandan séʔ ‘red’ RTC , ráseʔš ‘it’s red hot’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *še

Proto-Dakota *šá

Lakota šá ‘red’ RTC , šá, pa- ‘make red by rubbing’ EB:434 , šá, yu- ‘make red by rubbing or touching’ EB:651

Dakota śá ‘red’ SRR:440a

Sioux Valley šá ‘red’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *šé•

Chiwere se, še ‘red haws, apple’ RR

Hoocąk kšee ‘apple’ KM:1900 , kšee

Proto-Dhegiha *še

Omaha-Ponca še ‘red haws’ MRG

Kanza/Kaw še ‘red haws, apple’ RR

Osage she , †še ‘red haw (archaic)’ LF:131a

General comment

Cf. ‘quail, prairie chicken’ in which Hoocąk also has for the epected . Cf. also ‘nine’. Crow/Hidatsa initial hi- may be a pronominal stem. Crow gemination of the spirant may reflect an h augment; Cf. ‘red (1a)’ for discussion and additional references. There is some areal distribution of similar fruit terms. Cf. Choctaw shạnafila ‘black hawthorn’ (By-328a); shakulạp ‘crabapple’ (By-325b), also a Choctaw variant chạnafila in which ch (=č) would have undergone the normal change in that language from an older , a change shared with Biloxi, Ofo, Tutelo. Cf. also šímina, A.S.

Gatschet Peoria-Miami dictionary file, NAA. Catawba siką́ ‘red’ (Kanza/Kaw-185) is vaguely similar, but not clearly related, Yuchi ša (LB) even less so.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources