verb physical_condition


Proto-Siouan *sá•he(-ka)


Hidatsa cá• ‘raw, uncooked, unripe’ J , cáhca• ‘raw’ J

Pre-Mandan *šąʔh-

Mandan šą́ʔhoʔš ‘it’s raw’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *sá•hka

Proto-Dakota *sáka

Lakota sáka ‘hard, dried’ EB:452a

Dakota sáka ‘raw, uncooked, hard, dried’ PAS

Sioux Valley sáka ‘raw, uncooked, hard, dried’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *sá•khe

Chiwere θa•khé ‘raw’ RR , θá•khe ‘raw meat’ RR

Hoocąk saaké ‘be raw’ KM:2786 , saake

Proto-Dhegiha *sáhka

Omaha-Ponca saka thide , †sakka ‘watermelon’ MAS:186

Kanza/Kaw sákką ‘raw’ RR , gisákka ‘fresh, virginal’ JOD

Osage çáḳa , †sáhka ‘raw, uncooked’ LF:29a

Quapaw sákka ‘raw’ JOD



Biloxi sáhi , †sáhi ‘raw, wild, uncivilized’ D&S:251a

General comment

Cf. ‘hard (1)’. Kanza/Kaw remains unexplained. This bimorphemic set contains further evidence that there was an active Siouan rule that converted preaspirated stops into post aspirates (*hC > Ch). It is another case of a root with apparent -h and an affix with an unaspirated stop in which the sequence *hk > kh in the languages which have post-aspirated rather than preaspirated stops, here, v. Hoocąk and Chiwere, and cf.

raccoon’. The suffix vowel is difficult to pin down because so many of the languages have altered the term. Dakota and DH dialects show contamination from saka ‘hard’; Dakota lacks the expected aspiration while both Dakota and DH have altered the final vowel. Mandan nasalization is irregular. The Hidatsa reduplicated form preserves the final h and short vowel. The long vowel is from *aha > a•.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources