noun animal_insect


Proto-Siouan [old reconstruction only]

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *apá•ka

Crow apáaka ‘mosquito’ RG

Hidatsa apá•ka ‘mosquito’ AWJ


Mandan háparaka ‘fly’ RH:67

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ra•phąke ~ *ya•phąke (?)

Proto-Dakota *čhaphų́ka

Lakota čhaphų́ka ‘mosquito’ RTC

Dakota ćapóŋka , †čhaphų́ka ‘mosquito’ SRR:96b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ra•wą́ke

Chiwere ðawų́ŋe ‘mosquito’ RTC , láwąŋe ‘mosquito’ GMsf , ra•wą́ñe ‘mosquito’ JDH

Otoe ra•wą́ŋe ‘mosquito’ RR

Hoocąk raawą́k ‘mosquito’ KM:2533 , raawąk

Proto-Dhegiha *raphąke (?)

Omaha-Ponca náhǫga ‘mosquito’ RTC , náhǫge ‘mosquito’ JOD

Kanza/Kaw yáphąįge, yáphoįge ‘mosquito’ RR

Osage ðáphąke ‘mosquito’ [sg] RR , laphaį [pl] RR , lapxain RR , laphąke , lapxanke

Quapaw dahǫ́ke ‘mosquito’ JOD , daphąke ‘mosquito’ RR


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *ya•mąki

Biloxi yamạkí , †yaməkí ‘mosquito’ D&S:288a

Ofo tcā´mạki , †čá•məki ‘mosquito’ D&S:329a, JSS

General comment

Lack of an initial consonant in MRS is not accounted for and the consonant that does occur here in the other subgroups is not regular (often even within subgroups), although its irregularity is of a somewhat familiar sort (*r ~ *y). Osage is the only language in which initial ð ~ l (< *kr?), although Omaha-Ponca n is irregular also. Chiwere and DH both show reflexes of ą ~ ų medially here. DH shows variation in final vowels in both Omaha-Ponca and Osage. This word appears to be a widespread form, perhaps an old compound that has undergone folk reanalysis several times. Note these look-alikes in Algonquian and Muskogean: Miami sakimia (pl. -aki) (cf. Osage sg and pl). Choctaw sapóntak, Chickasaw sapóntaki, with no Eastern Muskogean cognates. Choc./Chick. s may be < earlier *c. Unlike the other language families however, Siouan appears to have reflexes of this noun in every major subgroup. All the same, the term has no completely secure reconstruction in which all of the sound correspondences are understood and followed.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources