verb physical_contact


Proto-Siouan *ki-hi•(-hpa)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *hí•

Crow híi ‘meet’ RGG, GG:48

Hidatsa wakhí• ‘meet, assemble’ J


Mandan kíhiʔš ‘they meet, gather together’ H:107

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ahkihpa

Proto-Dakota *akhípha

Lakota akhípha ‘meet’ RTC

Dakota akípa ‘meet, come upon one’ SRR:28b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-khípha

Chiwere akhípha ‘meet, encounter’ GM

Hoocąk hikipá ‘meet; run into, collide with’ KM:928 , hikipa

Proto-Dhegiha *áhkihpa

Omaha-Ponca akipa ‘meet’ MAS:119

Kanza/Kaw ákkippa ‘meet’ RR

Osage áḳip̣a , †áhkihpa ‘meet’ LF:12a

Quapaw ákkippa ‘meet’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *o-khi(-pa)


Biloxi ókxipa , †ókxipa ‘meet’ D&S:209b


Tutelo oaki , †oaki ‘I met’ H

General comment

Comparing MRS and OVS it looks as though *hí• (‘arrive there’??) is originally compounded with *ki (probably ‘reciprocal’) and when this contracted to *k-hi• and became opaque a new stem *hpa was added. Now this augmented stem can be “reciprocalized” in DH by prefixing yet another *hki. DH kh rather than hk is predicted, so analogy has played a role here; the earlier *khi has been reinterpreted as a simple ‘reciprocal’.

Hidatsa wak- is reciprocal.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources