noun physical_somatic_body_part


Proto-Siouan *ré•pa

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ró•re•pa

Crow dúuleepe ‘jaw’ RG, GG:45, RGG:70

Hidatsa ró•ro•pa ‘jaw’ J , nó•ro•pa


Mandan ró•hu•pa ‘jaw’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(i-)re•pa

Proto-Dakota *čhehúpa

Lakota čhehúpa ‘jaw’ RTC

Dakota ćehúpa ‘the under jaw’ SRR:98b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *rá•pe

Chiwere hí láwe GM , teeth holder

Hoocąk ráap ‘lower jaw’ KM:2527 , raap ‘chin’ JWE , hiiráp , hirap

Proto-Dhegiha *répa

Omaha-Ponca théba , †ðéba F&LF:107

Kanza/Kaw yéba, yébahü, yeba wahü RR

Osage théba , †ðépa ‘under jaw, jaw’ LF:143a

Quapaw díba wáhi ‘chin’ JOD , dibáhį ‘beard’ JOD

General comment

Dakotan čh is the reflex of *r after *i-, here the inalienable possessive prefix often applied to body parts. Kanza/Kaw shows hubone’ compounded with ‘jaw’. Mandan and Dakota have seemingly incorporated the root for ‘bone’: e.g., Dakota *čhépahu > čhehúpa, perhaps under the influence of hupa, ‘stem, stalk’. Crow/Hidatsa seem to show additional changes from a form like that reflected in Mandan: first, the assimilation of *-h- to the preceding r; secondly the swapping of vowels (Crow) or the assimilation of *e• to *u• (Hidatsa). Chiwere/Hoocąk are not properly cognate as they appear to have been reanalyzed (?) as ‘holder’ and compounded with ‘teeth’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources