indefinite/interrogative (1)

particle n/a


Proto-Siouan *ha


Crow ha- in: ham ‘some’ GG:65 , ha- in: hawa ‘some’ GG:63 , ha- in: hawahtaá ‘all over’ GG:63 , ha- in: hawakó• ‘somewhere’ L:96 , ha- in: háwarin ‘sometimes’ L:97 , ha- in: hawass ‘around, here and there’ GG:65 , ha- in: hawattán ‘somewhere’ GG:63 , ha- in: hawáta ‘one; other’ GG:48

Hidatsa -ha- in: táhawia ‘how many times?, several times’ H&V , -ha- in: to•haruš ‘somewhat, surely’ J


Mandan -ha ‘what thing’ H:483 , -ha in: táha

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ha-


Chiwere -ha ‘which; which?’ JGT:651 , -ha in: danáha/ danáhaje ‘which one?’ JGT:3776 , -há- , -há- in: tánahá^e

Hoocąk ha- in: hačągá ‘which one?’ KM:549 , ha- in: hacąga ‘where?’ KM:552 , ha- in: hačį́įǰa ‘everywhere’ KM:553 , ha- in: hacįįja , ha- in: hačį́įǰeregí , ha- in: hacįįjeregi

Proto-Dhegiha *ha-

Omaha-Ponca á- in: áną ‘how many’ JEK , á- in: ágodi ‘where’ JEK , á- in: á-na ‘how much? how many?’ , á- in: á-na-ska ‘how large?’ , á- in: á-taⁿ ‘how long? how far?’ , a- in: a-táⁿ ‘when?’

Kanza/Kaw ha- in: hagó, hágo ‘why’ [hagó, hágo] MR, JOD, RR , ha- in: hakhą́ ‘how far?, how long?, when?’ RR , ha- in: háną ‘how many, how much?’ RR , ha- in: háyǫska ‘how big, what size?’ RR

Osage há- in: há-goⁿ , †háką ‘wherefore; what has happened; what is it (?)’ LF:58a , há- in: há-noⁿ , †háną ‘how much, how many?’ LF:58a , há- in: há-ṭa , †háhta ‘why’ LF:58b , ha- in: ha-toⁿ´ , †hathą́ ‘how far; what distance’ LF:58b , hó- in: hó-wa-ge thiⁿ-ge , †hathą́ ‘nowhere’ LF:67b , hó- in: hó-wa-iⁿ-ge , †hathą́ ‘where; in what place’ LF:67b , hó- in: hó-wa-the , †hathą́ ‘where; which one’ LF:67b , hó- in: hú-wa-ge , †hó- ‘where’ LF:68b

General comment

Osage forms in ho- seems to represent ha- followed by o- ‘inside’ or before a w-. Omaha-Ponca loses the initial h- irregularly, but the examples certainly seem to be cognate.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources