hot, warm

verb perceptual


Proto-Siouan *ahká•tE ~ *aRá•-hkatE

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(Rá•)-hkatE

Proto-Dakota *khátA

Lakota khátA ‘hot’ RTC

Dakota káta ‘warm, hot’ SRR:269b

Stoney kháda PAS

Sioux Valley kháta PAS


Hoocąk taakác ‘be hot, warm’ KM:3053 , taakac

Proto-Dhegiha *Ráhkate

Omaha-Ponca nákkade ‘hot’ RTC, RR

Kanza/Kaw dákkaǰe ‘hot, as a person, stove’ RR , badákkaǰe ‘heat by pushing something’ RR , bódakkaǰe ‘heat up from shooting’ RR , büdákkaǰe ‘heat something by rubbing, warm under one’ RR , gadákkaǰe ‘heat something by pounding on it’ RR , nądákkaǰe ‘heat up, as an engine from running’ RR , yüdákkaǰe ‘heat something by holding it near fire’ RR

Osage dáḳadse , †táhkace ‘hot’ LF:36a

Quapaw tákkatte ‘hot, to be hot’ RR



Tutelo akáteka, akātia , †aká•te- ‘shine hot on’ H , akáta , †aká•te- ‘kettle < water + instrumental + hot’ JOD , meniʔiigaat’eeʔąʔa , †aká•te- ES , menii´kate´oⁿ , †aká•te- LJF

General comment

Both the root and the stem formed with aRá•-heat/cold, instrumental’ are attested. The prefix has fused in several languages to the point that in at least several languages other instrumental prefixes can be compounded with it. The Kanza/Kaw forms illustrate this clearly. What is not clear is how far back the fused stem occurred.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources