hit, pound

verb physical_contact_impact


Proto-Siouan *aphá

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *aphá

Proto-Dakota *pha

Lakota aphá ‘hit’ RTC

Stoney aphá ‘hit’

Sioux Valley aphá ‘hit’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-phá

Chiwere į́lapha ~ į́lopha ‘grind stone’ GM

Hoocąk haphá ‘hit’ JWE , hapa ‘hit the mark or target (as missile)’ KM:527 , haapá , hapa

Proto-Southeastern *pá-he or: *pá-hi


Biloxi páwehi , †páwehi ‘he knocked them’ D&S:244b


Tutelo pahee , †pahe• ‘pound’ H


Catawba kuspáʔ ‘corn (kus-) meal’ [paʔáwe ‘we powder’] FGS

General comment

It is difficult to separate completely the reflexes of Proto-Siouan *-phegrind’ and *-phahit’, as they differ only by the vowel, which normally alternates between e and a in any event. The two verbs may indeed be doublets. Division of the forms differs depending on how much weight one assigns to phonology and how much to semantics. There remains some mixture.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources