hawk (1), falcon

noun animal_bird


Proto-Siouan *kye-tą́he ~ *kye-tų́he


Mandan titą́he ‘hawk’ H:252

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kyetą́ ~ *kyetų́

Proto-Dakota *čhetą́

Lakota čhetą́ ‘hawk’ EB:130b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *gredų́

Chiwere gretũʹ ‘hawk’ LWR:8

Hoocąk kereǰų́sep ‘Black Hawk (name)’ KM:1796 , kerejųsep, kerejų

Proto-Dhegiha *kretą́

Omaha-Ponca gthedoⁿ´ , †gðedǫ́ ‘sparrow hawk’ F&LF:105

Kanza/Kaw ledą́ ‘hawk’ RR

Osage gthedoⁿ´ , †letą́ ‘hawk, falcon’ LF:54b

Quapaw kdetą́ ‘smallest variety of hawk’ JOD



Biloxi kyĕtoⁿhí , †kyetǫhí ‘duck hawk’ D&S:218a

General comment

Ofo tutá ‘hawk’ (DS-331b) looks related, but is from ‘eat’ instead.

Variability between and in MVS is not uncommon, the two having merged at least partially in DH. This noun is interesting for other reasons however. It appears to be composed of three elements *kye-, specific meaning unknown (but cf. *kyą- ‘Buteo’), which is segmentable only by comparing Mandan with the rest, *-tą́/ų́, the second part the root, and *-he, a very common final syllable and probable Proto-Siouan suffix.

Root-initial t should be aspirated if its position as second syllable initial goes back to Proto-Siouan, but it is not, so initial k- may well be the reflex of an additional syllable. Nor is the second syllable vowel lengthened. There are several unanswered questions here.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources