verb possession


Proto-Siouan *a-_rį́

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *a-_nį́

Proto-Dakota *a-_níča

Lakota aníča ‘withhold, keep back from, retain’ EB:82a

Dakota aníća ‘withhold, keep back from, retain’ SRR:36b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *a-_nį́

Chiwere a•ñį́ ‘have, hold’ LF

Hoocąk hanį́ ‘own, have, take along’ KM:634 , hanį

Proto-Dhegiha *a-_rį́

Omaha-Ponca a¢iⁿ´ , †a-_ðį́

Kanza/Kaw ayį́ ‘have’ RR

Osage athiⁿ´ , †a-_ðį́ ‘have’ LF:15b

Quapaw anį́ ‘have, keep’

Proto-Southeastern *ani (?)


Ofo áni , †áni ‘take’ D&S:321a


Tutelo tahoñtanēki ‘have’ H

General comment

*rį ‘move’ and *rįbe’ (along with *a-rįhave’) are conjugated differently from one another. Either ‘move’ has been analogically restructured or, more likely, its *r- is the epenthetic glide; both verbs should logically behave identically, as R-stems, but only ‘have’ and ‘be’ do.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources