hard > cane, walking stick

noun perceptual_tactile


Proto-Siouan (*i-) *sakE (*hi_E)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *i•cakÉ

Crow iihčí ‘cane, crutch’ RG

Hidatsa i•cakÉ ‘cane, walking stick’ J , i•cakí

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *(í-)sak-re

Proto-Dakota *sak-yA

Lakota sagyé ‘cane’ [< sáka ‘dry, hard, firm’ + ya ‘causative’] RTC

Dakota sagyé ‘sth. used in walking, a staff’ SRR:430a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *sákre

Chiwere ságre ‘cane, staff’ JGT:64

Hoocąk sákere, sáakeré ? ‘war-bundle’ KM:2787 , hisakere, saakere

Proto-Dhegiha *í-sakre

Kanza/Kaw ísale ‘cane, crutch’ RR

Osage íçagthe , †ísale ‘post planted in the ground, walking stick, cane’ LF:69b

General comment

This is a causatively derived noun in MVS, often with the instrumental nominalizer *i-. Cf. ‘hard (1)’. The Crow and Hidatsa forms are not analyzable as causatives. Their initial i• is an instrumental prefix. Note that the derivation has problems, e.g., the length of the root vowel and the final vowel (here, the ablauting vowel).

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources