grind, pound

verb physical_contact_deformation


Proto-Siouan *pVhé•


Hidatsa phÉ ‘dig, grind’ J , phí


Mandan pE ‘to grind’ H:140 , péʔš ‘he grinds it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *phe

Proto-Dakota *phá

Lakota kaphá ‘pound’ RTC

Dakota ka-p’á , †kaphá ‘beat, thresh off, pound up’ SRR:262b

Sioux Valley pha ‘pound’ PAS


Chiwere į́lapha ~ į́lopha ‘grind stone’ GM

Proto-Dhegiha *phé

Omaha-Ponca į́ðapha ‘corn crusher’

Kanza/Kaw phe ‘grind’ RR

Osage pshe , †phé ‘pound corn into fine meal’ LF:129b

Quapaw phe ‘pound something in a mortar’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *pahé•


Biloxi apĕhĕ, pĕhé , †pehe ‘pound, as corn’ D&S:244b

Ofo phe , †phe ‘pound’ D&S:328a


Tutelo pahē , †pahe• ‘pound’ H , wāba-hé , †wa•pahé ‘powder, flour’ HW


Catawba paʔáwe ‘we powder’

General comment

The Hidatsa form seems to entail ‘motion up and down’; hence derived forms meaning ‘digging stick’, ‘pump’, and ‘tattoo’ as well as the obvious ‘cornball’. Hidatsa aspiration is secondary, from earlier *pVhe. Cf. ‘hit, pound’ for possible doublets that developed from the a ablaut form of this verb. Tutelo length suggests that the second syllable was not the common verb suffix *-he; lack of aspiration in Tutelo is also indicative of our Proto-Southeastern form. Biloxi has assimilated the vowels; Ofo has irregularly syncopated the unstressed short vowel. Some languages have reinterpreted the final vowel as ablauting.

Other languages

  • PUA #317 *pah ‘pestle’, Miller
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources