noun social_kin


Proto-Siouan *i-hkų́•


Hidatsa i-ku• ‘grandmother, woman’s mother-in-law’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-hkų́

Proto-Dakota *khų́

Lakota khų́ ‘mother-in-law’ RTC , khų́ši ‘grandmother’ RTC

Stoney khųksíǰu ‘his grandmother’ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *i-khų́-nį

Chiwere ikhų́, ikhų́ñi ‘grandmother; mother-in-law’ GM

Hoocąk kunį́ka, kunįkága ‘grandma’ KM:1918 , kunįka

Proto-Dhegiha *ihkǫ́

Omaha-Ponca ikkǫ́ ‘grandmother’ RTC

Kanza/Kaw ikkó, ikkǫ́ RR

Osage ikó , †ihką́ ‘grandmother’ LF:74a , iḳoⁿ´ , †ihką́ ‘his mother-in-law’ LF:74a

Quapaw įkką́, įkkǫ́, ikkǫ́ RR

Proto-Southeastern *i-kų́•-(ni)

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *i-kų́-(ni)

Biloxi ḳûⁿḳûⁿ´ , †kųkų́ ‘grandmother, mother-in-law’ D&S:217b , ekuñi, higūñ , †kųkų́ ‘grandfather’

Ofo ĭkóni , †ikǫ́ni ‘grandmother’ D&S:324a


Tutelo higūñ , †(h)ikų́•(-ni) ‘grandmother’ H , kųkäkʻ , †(h)ikų́•(-ni) ‘grandfather’ ES , koⁿ´keⁿk , †(h)ikų́•(-ni) LJF , hikų́ , †(h)ikų́•(-ni)

General comment

The increment *-nį is common in both the Southeast and in Chiwere/Hoocąk. It is unidentified unless it is the nasalized allomorph of *-re; it recurs in the same languages in ‘mother (1) (referential)’, q.v. Lack of expected aspiration in the SE is a more serious problem. All transcribers clearly marked the k as lenis or wrote it as g. Proto-Southeastern *k and Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hk simply do not match, so, although we are convinced that these terms are all related, their phonological development is irregular.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources