grandfather (1)

noun social_kin


Proto-Siouan *i-htúką

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-htúką

Proto-Dakota *thųką́

Lakota thųką́ ‘father-in-law’ RTC , thųkášila ‘grandfather’ RTC

Stoney thųgá- PAS


Chiwere i•thúgą ‘grandfather’ RR

Hoocąk čooká, čookága ‘grandfather, father-in-law’ KM:260 , cooka ‘paternal or maternal grandfather; father-in-law’ KM:832 , hičoké , hicooke

Proto-Dhegiha *i-htíką < **i-htǘką

Omaha-Ponca ittígǫ ‘grandfather’ RTC

Kanza/Kaw iččígo ‘grandfather’ RR

Osage iṭsígo , †ihcíko ‘grandfather’ LF:80b

Quapaw ittíką ‘grandfather’ RR



Biloxi tukaⁿ´ni, tukaní , †tukąni ‘mother’s brother’ D&S:281b

General comment

Cf. ‘grandfather (2)’. The DH terms should show traces of earlier , at least in Kanza/Kaw and Osage. Osage ǘ is preserved after hc in ‘shell’, for example. The Hoocąk vocalism is also a problem and should show o. And, although final vowel denasalization is commonly found in Kanza/Kaw, for example, it is not common in Hoocąk. Biloxi suggests that this word may have had *(-re), but lack of a Mandan cognate leaves us without confirmation. Proto-Siouan reconstruction here represents one possible form, but there are many problems with this set. It is possible that this term represents, or has been contaminated by, *hų́ka ‘ancestor’ with a syncopated reflex of the *hta- ‘alienable’ prefix; this would account for the preaspiration in Hidatsa (see below), and offer some rationale for the term’s usage in referring to respected male ancestors.

Unfortunately, Crow isisáahke ‘woman’s father-in-law’ (DEC-124), Crow isáaksaahke ‘woman’s grandfather’ (DEC-124), Crow iilápxisaahke ‘man’s grandfather’ (DEC-124), and Hidatsa á•rutahka ‘grandfather, woman’s father-in-law’ (J) do not seem to fit here, though they are superficially similar. The problems are length (in Crow) and quality of the root vowel and preaspiration of the final consonant.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources