gills, palate

noun physical_somatic_body_part



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-ráke

Proto-Dakota *čhaká

Lakota čhaká ‘palate’ RTC

Dakota ćaká ‘the palate, roof of the mouth, gills’ SRR:84b

Proto-Dhegiha *i-ráke

Kanza/Kaw ho yáge ‘gills’ RR

Osage ho íthage , †ho íðake ‘(fish) gills’ LF:63b

Quapaw táka ‘gills’ JOD

General comment

Lakota čh, DH *r betray the presence earlier of an inalienable possessive prefix, *i-, on this body part term. Osage alone among the daughter languages has kept (or restored?) the prefix. There has been a (not uncommon) accent shift rightward in Lakota after loss of the old prefix. The identity of the final vowel is unclear here. Lakota stress placement indicates that the final vowel is not the ablauting vowel, an interpretation supported by the final vowel in Quapaw, but since -E is a feature of verbs in Siouan, spreading to nouns only analogically, this noun could have had *-e. The Quapaw form also shows an unexpected reflex of *R instead of *r.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources