verb physical_condition


Proto-Siouan *atá•he


Mandan ktah ‘to be frozen’ H:123

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *tá•

Proto-Dakota *ta-

Lakota tasáka ‘freeze’ RTC , tasáka ‘stiff, hard, frozen, hardened by cooling’ SRR:461b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *tá•

Chiwere dá•khara ‘freeze’ RR, GM

Hoocąk ǰáa ‘freeze, be frozen’ KM:1665 , jaa

Proto-Dhegiha *tá

Omaha-Ponca ‘freeze’ RR

Kanza/Kaw ‘freeze’ RR

Osage da , †tá ‘freeze, frozen’ LF:32a


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *atahe

Biloxi atxé, atxĕ´ , †athé D&S:175a

Ofo ā´thahi , †á•thahi ‘frozen’ D&S:322a, JSS


Catawba tap ‘frozen’ KS

General comment

Initial Mandan k- is unexplained. Dakotan < ‘freeze’ + ‘hard, stiff’. MVS clearly goes back to *tá, one of a very few roots with initial *t.

OVS argues for final *h, the latter trait shared with Mandan. Since ordinary aspiration was not consistently distinguished by Gatschet and Dorsey in Biloxi, the heavy aspiration recorded in this form probably represents a cluster. Ofo aspiration may simply represent a recent application of the demonstrably active Ofo aspiration rule. If our reconstruction of the Ofo initial vowel to Proto-Siouan is correct, there is no explanation for the failure of -t- to aspirate in the MVS languages. Accent and length in Ofo may signal the presence of a locative prefix rather than the reflex of a Proto-Siouan initial vowel however. Or perhaps there has been contamination from the ‘heat/cold, instrumental’ prefix.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources