frog (1), toad

noun animal_amphibian




Proto-Dakota *-thápixʔa

Lakota mápixʔa, mathápixa, withápixa, witapixʔa ‘toad’ EB:664a , natápixa ‘toad’ SRR:337b

Dakota natapeḣa ‘toad’ WM:246a , natápeḣa ‘toad’ SRR:337b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *théwaxʔu

Chiwere čhéwaxʔú ‘toad (lit. warty buffalo)’ GM

Hoocąk keewáxgu ‘toad’ [cf. Chiwere čhéwaxʔú] KM:1788 , keewaxgu

Proto-Dhegiha *htépüxʔa

Omaha-Ponca ṭebi’a , †ttébiʔa ‘frog’ JOD , tébia , †ttébiʔa MAS:81

Kanza/Kaw ččébükʔa ‘frog’ RR

Osage ṭsébiuḳ’a , †hcébükʔa ‘frog’ LF:157a

Quapaw tteáxʔa ‘toad’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *t(h)é•mų•


Ofo té̄mu ‘bullfrog’ D&S:330b


Tutelo hé̄mǭ ‘frog’ ES:295 , hee´moⁿ ‘frog’ LJF

General comment

Proto-Dhegiha is clearly *htépüxʔa. While the various Lakota words for ‘toad’ clearly derive from the same source, none is regular in comparison. Ofo and Tutelo must also derive from this source, but also do not compare regularly.

Given the complexity of the forms, these may be either compounds or borrowings. Chiwere has created a transparent, folk etymology, which Hoocąk apparently takes a step further, cf. ‘hear’. Some languages have replaced ‘toad’ with a descriptive expression leaving this etymon with the meaning ‘frog’ (Omaha-Ponca).

Other languages

  • Tunica: ʔučɛhka ‘toad’ MRH-293, which may be a loan or simply a more or less widespread animal name.
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources