use, do with



Proto-Siouan *i-ʔų́


Mandan ų́ška ‘be along, to be with’ H:262

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-ʔų́


Lakota ʔų ‘by means of, using’

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *i-ʔų́

Chiwere inų́ GM

Hoocąk hiʔų́ ‘do with, by means of, use’ KM:813 , hi’ų (> hi + ųų)

Proto-Dhegiha *i-ą́

Omaha-Ponca į ~ ą ~ ąą́ ‘use’

Kanza/Kaw weą́ ‘eat with’ JOD

Quapaw ‘with, instrumental’

Proto-Southeastern *i-ʔų́•


Biloxi yoⁿ , †i-ǫ ‘by means of, with’ D&S:242b


Tutelo íǫ ‘use’ JOD

General comment

Where ʔ is lost a glide is often inserted in the vowel cluster.

This term is a composite of *ʔų•do, make’ and *i- ‘instrumental’ Dakotan has evidently lost the crucial initial element, so ‘use’ is homophonous with ‘do, be’ but the two verbs are conjugated differently. Crow óolihche ‘eat along with’ GG-52 and Crow óoli ‘foods eaten with meats’ DEC-104, cognate with Hidatsa ó•ri ‘be complete’, do not appear to be cognate, but cf. the Kanza/Kaw form.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources