Proto-Siouan *tó•pa

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *tó•pa

Crow šoopá ‘four’ RG, GG:56, RGG:82

Hidatsa tó•pa ‘four’ J


Mandan tó•p, tó•pa ‘four’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *tó•pa

Proto-Dakota *tópa

Lakota tópa ‘four’ RTC

Dakota tópa ‘four’ SRR:478b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *tó•pe

Chiwere dó•we ‘four’ RR

Hoocąk ǰóop ‘four’ KM:1716 , joop

Proto-Dhegiha *tó•pa

Omaha-Ponca dú•ba ‘four’ RTC, RR

Kanza/Kaw ttóˑba ‘four’ RR , dóˑba ‘four’ JOD

Osage tóˑpa ‘four’ RR

Quapaw tóˑwa ‘four’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *tó•pa

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *tó•pa

Biloxi topá, tópa , †tópa ‘four, four times, in four places’ D&S:279a

Ofo tó̄pa , †tó•pa ‘four’ D&S:331a, JSS


Tutelo tōp; tōpa, topāi, toba, topah , †to•pa ‘four’ N, HH , tōb , †to•pa ‘four’ JNBH , , †to•pa ‘four’ ES , tup , †to•pa ‘four’ LJF

General comment

The initial consonant of the modern Kanza/Kaw form is not regular but very definitely is tt-. In instances where Chiwere has generalized -e < Proto-Siouan *a and Hoocąk has lost the final vowel entirely, we have reconstructed the vowel as in modern Chiwere. Saponi Jowfour’, attested in Fontaine, looks superficially similar but is almost certainly borrowed from Algonquian. Catawba parp(ə)re resembles somewhat Capt. John Smith’s Virginia Algonquian paranskefour’ and could conceivably be borrowed. Note however that the Algonquian paranske (also written “parance”) should mean ‘five’, not ‘four’. Cf. also Catawba dawosaeight’ (Kanza/Kaw).

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources