five (2)



Proto-Siouan *isá•ptą

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *sáptą

Proto-Dakota *záptą

Lakota záptą ‘five’ RTC

Dakota záptaŋ , †záptą ‘five’ SRR:649a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *sá•thą

Chiwere θá•thą ‘five’ RTC, RR

Hoocąk saačą́ KM:2783 , saacą

Proto-Dhegiha *sáhtą

Omaha-Ponca sáttą RR

Kanza/Kaw sáttą RR

Osage çáṭoⁿ , †sáhtą LF:29b

Quapaw sáttą RR



Ofo ĭftạptạⁿ´ , †iftəptə̨́ ‘ten’ D&S:323b , iftạ́ptạ , †iftəptə̨́ ‘hundred’

General comment

Only Ofo has both roots, ‘five (1)’ and ‘five (2)’. The intrusive t which appears in Ofo can also be seen in ‘black (2)’, q.v. The Ofo meaning may reflect a shift from a quinary system to a decimal system. Ofo’s initial vowel explains accent placement in MVS and may explain voicing in Dakotan.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources