noun plant


Proto-Siouan *pʔé < *wa-ʔé•


Hidatsa wiraʔí• ‘elm’ J , miraʔí•


Mandan wráwi ‘elm’ H:300

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *pʔé < **wa-ʔé• RR

Proto-Dakota *pʔé

Lakota pʔéčhą

Dakota p̣e , †pʔe ‘elm’ SRR:429a


Chiwere a•wé•grąŋe RR

Proto-Dhegiha *e-

Omaha-Ponca ežą JOD

Kanza/Kaw ehǘ ~ éhü ‘elm’ RR

Osage éhü ‘elm’ RR

Quapaw ehí ‘elm’ JOD

General comment

Most of the languages compound ‘elm’ with ‘wood’ or ‘tree’: ‘tree + elm’ in Hidatsa and Mandan; ‘elm + tree’ elsewhere. Elm appears to be from *wa + ʔe/i. *wa- loses its vowel as usual in this context leaving *w-ʔe or *w-ʔi, which > pʔe/i. Note, however, that this development is different from the 1Act forms of verbs whose roots begin with ʔ and where the prefix also takes the form wa-. This may ultimately aid in seriation of nominal and verbal morphologies.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources