demonstrative > that, the aforesaid

pronoun n/a


Proto-Siouan *ʔe• RR

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *é•

Crow éehk ‘that’ [concrete reference] GG:65 , ée- in: éehkok ‘there it is’ GG:65 , ée- in: éetko ‘everyone’ GG:63 , ée- in: éetshi ‘in every direction’ GG:63

Hidatsa e•- in: é•waki• ‘that one lying there’ [< X + ‘lie, be lying] J , e•- in: é•ca ‘all’ [< X + -ca ‘collective suffix’] J , e•- in: é•hku(a) ‘that one, the one over there; focus marker’ J , é•- in: é•raka ‘that one; over there (far)’ H&V


Mandan e ‘general demonstrative’ H:434 , -e- in: -eška ‘similitive’ H:63 , é- in: éta ‘far away’

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ʔe•


Lakota e ‘on the other hand, instead’ [ref. to something or person mentioned before] EB:136 , e- in: epi ‘there are, there is’ EB:136 , e- in: ecána ‘soon’ EB:136 , e- in: ecéxci ‘just so, exactly (as one expected)’ EB:137 , e- in: ecíyatą ‘from, thence, hence’ EB:138 , é- in: éha ‘instead, on the contrary’ EB:139 , e- in: ehą́ ‘then, at that time; then, at that place; to, thus far’ EB:139 , e- in: ektá ‘at, to’ EB:141 , é- in: éna ‘right here’ EB:142 , e- in: etą́ ‘some, somewhat’ EB:143b , é- in: étkiya ‘towards, to, with’ EB:144 , é- in: étu ‘to, at, in there’ EB:144


Chiwere é^e , †éʔe ‘he/ she/ it’ JGT:789 , é- , †éʔe ‘then; and then’ JGT:782, LWR , é- in: éda/ éta , †éʔe ‘around’ JGT:849 , é- , †éʔe ‘near; around; in the vicinity’ JGT:854 , é- in: ésan/ é^shan , †éʔe ‘close/ soon (in time)’ JGT:855 , é- , †éʔe ‘beyond; farther away’ JGT:858 , é- in: é^sun/ é^shun , †éʔe ‘over; beyond; on the other side; far off; before; on that side’ , é- , †éʔe ‘beyond; past (hour); over’ JGT:863 , é- in: éswena/ éshwena , †éʔe ‘over’ JGT:865 , é- , †éʔe ‘more; in addition; beyond measure’ JGT:870 , é- in: étada , †éʔe , é- , †éʔe , é- in: étage/ étagi , †éʔe , é- , †éʔe , é- in: étagun , †éʔe , é- , †éʔe , é- in: ét^an , †éʔe , é- , †éʔe , é- in: étax^a , †éʔe

Hoocąk ée ‘it, this, that’ KM:296 , ee ‘and; here; then’ KM:297 , ée- in: éegi ‘there’ KM:298 , ee- in: eegi ‘about there; about that time’ KM:300 , ée- in: éeja ‘ever since then, from that point in space’ KM:301 , ee- in: eeja ‘himself, herself, itself (emph)’ KM:302 , éejaxjį, éejaxjįnį́įsge , eejaxjį, eejaxjįnįįsge , éepa , eepa , eexjį́ , eexjį

Proto-Dhegiha *ʔe•

Omaha-Ponca e ‘that, aforementioned’ [relative pronoun] JEK , e- in: edádą ‘what’ JEK , é- in: édi ‘there’ JEK , e- in: edíthą ‘from there’ JEK , é- in: égą ‘so, like that; he’s like that’ JEK , é- in: éną ‘so many’ JEK , é- in: étta ‘there, thither’ JEK , ĕ´-be ‘who’ , e-dá-daⁿ ‘what?’ , e-gaⁿ ‘forms indefinite pronoun’ , e- ‘forms demonstrative pronoun’ , e-ki- ‘forms relative pronoun’ , é-na ‘that much’ , é-na-ska ‘that large’ , é-taⁿ ‘that long, of that length’ , é-taⁿ-ha ‘that high, of that height, or depth’ , e-ki-na ‘as much as that one’ , e-ki-taⁿ ‘as long as that one’ , e-ki-taⁿ-ha ‘as high as that one’

Kanza/Kaw ʔe• ‘that, aforementioned’ [eškí, ešké] RR , é- in: édą ‘so,therefore’ RR , é- in: égo ‘like, as, so’ RR , e- in: ejí ‘there, in that place’ MR, RR , e- in: eškí ‘too, that’s it, him too’ MR, JOD, RR , é- in: étta ‘there, towards that place (?)’ MR, RR

Osage e ‘those, as those apples; those things’ [This term is frequently found in rituals.] LF:40a , e ‘he, she, it, or that’ LF:40a , e- in: e-béa ‘who is it?’ LF:40a , é- in: é-çka ‘in truth’ LF:40a , é- in: é-de ‘one that is’ LF:40a , é- in: é-di ‘indefinite article’ LF:40a , e- in: e-doⁿ ‘when’ LF:40a , e- in: e-doⁿ´ ‘therefore’ LF:40a , e- in: e-dsí ‘there’ LF:40a , e- in: e-dsí-hi ‘when that happens; when I get there’ LF:40a , e- in: e-dsí-toⁿ ‘thence; from that place’ LF:40a , e- |and| -é in: e-é tho ‘it is that’ LF:40a , é- in: é-gi-oⁿ ‘to do so’ LF:40a , e- in: e-goⁿ ‘verily; very’ LF:40b , e- in: e-goⁿ´-xtsi ‘exact; precise; downright; real; in reality’ LF:40b , é- in: énoⁿ-ha ‘as many as there are’ LF:41a , e- in: e-shkí ‘he, she, or it too’ LF:41b , e- in: e-shoⁿ´ ‘near; close to’ LF:41b , e- in: e-ṭá ‘thitherward; toward the person’ LF:41b , é- in: éthoⁿ-zha ‘even though this be true; nevertheless’ LF:41b , é- in: é-ṭoⁿ ‘even to them’ LF:41b



Biloxi e ‘the aforesaid: refers to some antecedent expressed, not implied’ D&S:186b , é- ‘what is the town’s name (Banks)’ D&S:186b , é- in: édi in: taⁿ édi káwak yátcĕ ‘then’ D&S:205b , e- ‘that is why’ D&S:206a , e- in: eḳaⁿ´, or ĕkaⁿ´ ‘and then’ D&S:206a , e- ‘just there’ D&S:192a , e- in: eḳédi ‘there, this is it’ D&S:192a , e- ‘here’ D&S:192a , e- in: eḳekaⁿ´ ‘so, thus, as’ D&S:192a , ĕ´- ‘because, since, that kind or sort’ D&S:192b , ĕ´- in: ĕ´maⁿ ‘to that place, in that direction; beyond; farther’ D&S:285a , ĕ´- ‘yonder, that’ D&S:189a , ĕ´- in: ĕ´ṭi ‘further, still further’ D&S:189a , ĕ´- ‘far’ D&S:192a , ĕ´- in: ĕ´ti ‘far off’ D&S:192a , ĕ- ‘there’ D&S:186b , ĕ- in: ĕṭíḳe , ĕ- , ĕ- in: ĕṭuḳĕ´ , é- , é- in: éwa or ewá , é- , é- in: éwa , e- , e- in: ewaxtí , ĕ´- , ĕ´- in: ĕ´xti , ĕ- , ĕ- in: ĕxtík , é- , é- in: éyaⁿ ~ eyáⁿ

General comment

The following forms indicate the existence of an initial glottal stop: Hidatsa heʔe, šeʔe; Chiwere eʔe, haʔe, jaʔe, kaʔe, sheʔe; Hoocąk žeʔe; Kanza/Kaw beʔeʔé• ‘who is that?’; Osage e-e tho.

Clearly, ʔe- was commonly compounded with other demonstratives.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources