cover (1)

verb physical_contact_manipulation


Proto-Siouan *Sųhe

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-xua < *-xuhe

Crow iaxuá ‘hide; cover’ GG:71, RG , aaxuá ‘hide something’ GG:3, RGG:24

Hidatsa iʔaxua ‘hide sth.’ J , aʔaxua ‘hide sth.’ J

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-šų́


Hoocąk šų́, horu- ‘cover,; pitch (tent); put canvas over poles of tipi’ KM:1508 , horušų


Kanza/Kaw bašǫ́ ‘fold shut’ RR



Biloxi soⁿni, atŭ´k- (atŭkse’oⁿni) , †atə́ksǫnį ‘put a lid on a kettle, etc.’ D&S:175a , soⁿ´hoⁿ, aduk- , †atuksǫ́hǫ ‘(she) covered it up’ D&S:175a

General comment

Crow/Hidatsa forms suggest earlier *-xuha ~ *-xoha; perhaps compare the -sǫh- in Biloxi. The Biloxi terms are hard to analyze. The “u” of the second entry may be a typo for “ŭ”as in the first entry. And unfortunately it makes a big difference in the analysis, as “ŭ”, phonetically (phonemically?) [ə], generally denotes *a while u is from *u. If there is really ŭ, then the prefix is dak- from Proto-Siouan *raka- ‘by striking’ with a root .

Otherwise the prefix is du- ‘by hand/pulling’ and a root ksǫ. The initial prefix is the locative in either event. The remainder of the stem presents other problems. If the parenthetical (atŭkse’oⁿni) is a correct analysis, then the forms are not cognate at all. If it is D&S’s incorrect analysis, cognacy is still possible. The problem is that -soⁿni can come from *sǫ-re or from *se-(h)ǫ-re where *(h)ǫ-re is the auxiliary ‘do, make’. Either is possible, but the second of the two entries suggests that -se- is an incorrect analysis, so we may have cognates here.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources