verb social_education


Proto-Siouan *ra-wé

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *(hki-)ruwE

Crow čimmí ‘count’ GG:38, RGG:80

Hidatsa (hki)ruwÉ ‘count’ J , (ki)ruwí

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *rawé

Proto-Dakota *yawá

Lakota yawá ‘say over, to read; to count; to consider’ [kį lila waką yawapi] EB:630b

Dakota yawá ‘count, say over, read’ SRR:617b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *ráwe

Chiwere ráwe, ráwa, rawáwe ‘count’ JGT:124

Hoocąk gikaráp ‘count’ KM:362 , gikarap

Proto-Dhegiha *rawá

Omaha-Ponca wá¢awábiamá , †wáðawá- ‘they counted them, they say’

Kanza/Kaw wéyawa ‘counting stick’ RR

Osage thawá , †ðawá ‘reckon, compute, count’ LF:142a

General comment

The root is presumably always combined with *ra-mouth, instrumental’. Hidatsa ru- would seem to be an assimilation of ra- to the following w. Chiwere/Hoocąk and Crow/Hidatsa indicate that the form could be prefixed by ki-.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources