coals (1)

verb physical_material


Proto-Siouan *xrį́


Crow -xii, alá- ‘burned’ RG, GG:8, RGG:49

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *xrį́

Proto-Dakota *čhaxrí

Lakota čhaxlí ‘coal, gunpowder’ RTC

Dakota ćaḣdí , †čhaxdí ‘charcoal, gunpowder’ SRR:84b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-xrį́•

Chiwere úxrį•ge ‘coals, embers’ JDH

Hoocąk ųųxį́nį ‘ashes’ KM:3914 , ųųxįnį ‘tingling sensation; hot, steady, annoying pain’ KM:1559 , -xį́nį, howa- ‘burn to embers’ KM:3097 , howaxįnį ‘poke with red-hot ember’ KM:1121 , -xį́nį, taa- , taaxįnį , -xį́nįxįnį, hiwa- , hiwaxįnįxįnį

Proto-Dhegiha *xrį́-že

Omaha-Ponca naxthiⁿ ‘flame’ MAS:249

Kanza/Kaw gaxlį́xlįže ‘sparkle’ RR , -xlį, dá- ‘burned, be’ RR , -xlįxlį, dá- ‘burned repeatedly’ JOD, RR

Osage xthiⁿzhá , †xlįžá ‘sparks of a fire’ LF:220b


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *aphé•-xenį (?)

Biloxi pĕ´xĕnoⁿní, pĕxĕnoⁿ´ , †péxe-nį ‘live or red coals’ D&S:245a

Ofo ạphé̄cni, aphésni , †əphé•šnį ‘coals’ D&S:321a, JSS

General comment

This root is usually compounded with a root for ‘fire’ or ‘tree, wood’, q.v.

Omaha-Ponca ną́xðe (JOD), Kanza/Kaw nąxlé (RR) ‘coals’ are not listed as cognates as their vowels do not match properly. This may be due to assimilation into the productive stem class (in -E). In DH ną- is found in numerous terms referring to wood or boards and is a doublet for žą. In Quapaw táxde ‘coal’ (JOD) and in Hoocąk, the ‘heat/cold, instrumental’, ta- and ta•- respectively, appears to have replaced ‘wood’. Dakotan irregularly has an oral vowel. In Biloxi the į was apparently replaced by the ǫ of ǫni ‘make, do’. However Biloxi, if cognate, may have reflex of a Proto-Siouan vowel between the two consonants. If this is the case, a Proto-Siouan reconstruction *xerį́ becomes a possibility. Words with SR clusters in Siouan behave accentually as if there were a vowel between the fricative and resonant, but that vowel is seldom clear, and several Siouan languages have introduced epenthetic vowels in the sequence.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources