chinquapin, lotus, cattail

noun plant



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hté•-wape


Lakota thewápha ‘chinquapin, lotus, cattail’ EJ , tewape ‘Nelumbo lutea’ MRG:90

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *thé•rape

Chiwere tcerawe , †čherawe JOD

Hoocąk čeeráp ‘lotus’ KM:194, MRG:90 , ceerap , tsherape

Proto-Dhegiha *htérawį/e

Ponca ttéðawį RR

Kanza/Kaw ččéwaye ‘lotus’ RR

Osage ṭséwathe , †hcéwaðe ‘lotus’ LF:160b

General comment

There is much irregularity in this set. Any Proto-Dhegiha reconstruction depends on external comparison. Here it appears that DH and Chiwere/Hoocąk have lost the initial w of the second stem. Kanza/Kaw/Osage and Chiwere/Hoocąk have epenthetic r here.

Omaha-Ponca has apparently done a more complete reanalysis, and much there remains unexplained. The MVS form seems to be a compound of a common Siouan form also found in Hidatsa, Mandan, etc., and a preposed *hte-, meaning unknown. Mandan ʔ suggests involvement of some sort of laryngeal in this root. Hidatsa aspiration suggests an earlier *-pVhV•, though the Hidatsa/Crow disagreement in vowels makes reconstruction uncertain. The root may well be reconstructible ultimately, but there are too many imponderables, and there has been too much reanalysis for us to attempt Proto-Siouan reconstruction at present. The Crow form is < biliwater’ + waapee.

Other languages

  • Pawnee: tukawiu Gilmore-90
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources