turn (1) > roll


Proto-Siouan-Catawba *parąʔ

Proto-Siouan *parą́(-he) (?)

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *wrų-


Stoney mnuɣa ‘twisted, gnarled’ PAS


Chiwere rubrún , †rubrų́ ‘twisted’

Proto-Dhegiha *-brǫ

Kanza/Kaw büblǫ́blǫze ‘roll paper/cord between hand/knee’ JOD

Osage i´ḳithibthoⁿ , †íhkiðibrą ‘mix together, intermixing’ LF:74a


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *-nąhi (?)

Biloxi pana, kĭpánahi, kĭpanáhi , †-nąhi ‘turn back, hand over’ D&S:243b

Ofo atū´nahi , †atú•nahi ‘turn back’ D&S:322b, JSS


Catawba diksitóparą́ʔsere ‘my back turn I’ FGS:6 , *parą́ʔ; parą́ʔhure ‘turn; roll away’ FGS:69

General comment

Reconstruction and even cognacy here are problematic. MVS forms all suggest *wr (from probably earlier *wa-r) here. The following vowels are also poor matches. Such a cluster in the present nasal environment would yield n in both Biloxi and Ofo (cf. ‘three’). If the MVS clusters go back to Proto-Siouan *pa-r however, the Biloxi form may be conservative, thus matching the Catawba (cf. ‘spread (1)’). In order for the Ofo to be properly cognate in this latter scenario, the proto form would have to be analyzed as bimorphemic, with Ofo retaining only the second half.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources