bison, reddish yellow buffalo

noun animal_mammal




Proto-Dhegiha *Róxe ~ *róxe

Ponca nóxe [FLF clan name erroneously translated ‘ice’] , nuxe

Kanza/Kaw yóxe ‘buffalo bull with reddish hair’ JOD

Osage ðóxe ‘archaic name for buffalo bull ~ gens name’ LF:154a , thóxe

Quapaw toxe ‘reddish yellow buffalo’ JOD

General comment

The X of the Marsh Chiwere entry may be a badly handwritten capital K, in which case the second half of the form may be ‘male’, q.v. toxe is not found in the Chiwere portion of Marsh’s dictionary MS, so this word may be restricted to DH alone. Even within DH this term lacks uniform reflexes.

Ponca and Quapaw show reflexes of initial *R, while Kanza/Kaw and Osage reflect *r.

Clearly though, this term refers to a buffalo which is much lighter in color than most bison are. What is not clear is whether this is a term for the rare white buffalo.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources