tree, bone, leg, stalk, stem, trunk



Proto-Siouan *-hú•(-re)

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *huri J

Crow hulí ‘bone’ GG:49, RGG:71 , iihulí ‘leg’ GG:76

Hidatsa hirú ‘bone’ J , wata•hiru ‘my legs, foundation’ J , mata•hiru ‘table (four legs)’ J , itá•hirutó•pa

Pre-Mandan *hu•-

Mandan húr , †hú•r ‘bone, stem, stalk’ H:82 , dokhú•re tó•p , †hú•r ‘table, lit. four legs’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *hú•

Proto-Dakota *hú

Lakota ‘leg, stalk, tree trunk, bone’ RTC

Dakota ‘bone, leg, stock, stem, bone’ SRR , wićahu ‘leg’ SRR:156b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *hú•

Chiwere ‘leg’ RR

Hoocąk húu ‘leg, from the hip down’ KM:1600 , huu ‘bone’ KM:1609 , húušerék, huušérek ‘handle’ KM:1606 , huušerek ‘front of leg’ KM:1603 , húuną , huuną , huučówe , huucowe (> huu + coowe)

Proto-Dhegiha *hü

Omaha-Ponca ‘leg’ RTC , hi ‘stalk’ F&LF:106

Kanza/Kaw ‘tree’ RR

Osage ‘tree trunk’ RR

Quapaw ‘tree’ RR

Proto-Southeastern *hú•(-ri)

Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *hu•ri

Biloxi udí , †hudí ‘stalk, trunk, stem, root’ D&S:283a , piⁿhudí , †hudí ‘hickory tree’ D&S:246a , piⁿ´hu ayaⁿ´ , †hudí ‘hickory wood’ D&S:246a

Ofo ū´li , †ú•li ‘a handle’ D&S:331b, JSS


Tutelo taskahūi, tāskahōi , †-hu• ‘oak’ H

General comment

Cf. ‘bone’ for an important derivation from this form. The Mandan forms are probably hu•r and < rok ‘leg’ + hu•r ‘stalk’ and to•pfour’. The Hidatsa form, vis-à-vis the Crow, shows rightward vowel exchange together with raising of short e to i. Crow and Hidatsa differ in showing vowel exchange in this form and in ‘sister (5) wSiYo’. Such differences suggest that rightward vowel exchange was spreading lexically at about the time of the Crow/Hidatsa split. Initial syllable accent and vowel length suggest that there was a missing initial syllable. Since this term has a variety of related meanings, it is possible that when it referred specifically to ‘bone’ or ‘leg’ it was inherently possessed and required possessive *i- ‘someone’s, his, her’. In MVS ‘bone’ takes the absolutive wa- today.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources