verb social_communication

Proto-Siouan-Catawba *wų

Proto-Siouan *wų́xE

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *wáxxu < *wúxxa

Crow báxxu ‘ask’ RG, GG:28, RGG:50 , čiwáxxu ‘ask’ RG, GG:39, RGG:50

Hidatsa hkiwáxxu ‘ask a question, ask for something’ J , kiwáxxu

Pre-Mandan *-wą•xe-

Mandan kiwą́•xeʔš ‘he asked him’ [prns. prefixed to ki-, all regular] RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *iwųɣE

Proto-Dakota *iwų́ɣA

Lakota iyų́ɣa SRR:240b, EB:263b, RTC, EJ

Dakota iwaŋġa , †iwą́ɣa ‘ask’ WM:10a

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *iwą́xe

Chiwere iwą́xe ‘ask’ JDH

Hoocąk hiwą́x KM:1122 , hiwąx

Proto-Dhegiha *íwǫɣe

Omaha-Ponca ímąɣe ~ iðąɣe ‘ask’ JEK

Ponca íwąɣe JOD

Kanza/Kaw íyǫɣe ‘ask’ JOD

Osage ímǫxe ‘inquire’ LF:74b , íðǫxe ‘ask, question’ LF:80a

Quapaw ímǫɣe ‘ask’ JOD



Biloxi háyiⁿ naxĕ´ , †nąxé ‘ask a question’ D&S:195b


Catawba mǫhare, mǫ ‘ask for’ FGS:15, KS

General comment

This is one of the few examples of an apparent w-stem. Cf. ‘lie, be lying, positional’ for a similar w ~ r in Dakota, DH. Quapaw apparently preserves the original irregular conjugation; cf. Dakota. DH stress has been shifted. The sequence *w+u seems to be inherently unstable in Siouan, and the result is always dissimilation of either the vowel, to a, or the glide, to r (or its various reflexes). Crow and Hidatsa show rightward vowel exchange of inherited -u-. Mandan suggests vowel length, but this is not confirmed by any other language. The Crow/Hidatsa long spirant is unaccounted for. JEK suggests that w-stems may, in fact, simply be vowel-initial stems with an epenthetic glide. This could explain the variability of the glide. Note that vanishingly few Siouan verb roots are vowel-initial.

W-stems have unusual conjugations. Here are some details for the present form: Lakota 1Act imų́ɣa; 2Act inų́ɣa (all dialects). Hoocąk 1Act hipą́x. Omaha-Ponca 1Act (wawe) mąɣe. Quapaw 1Act ímǫɣe; 2Act ížoɣe; 3Act plural ímaɣawe. In Kanza/Kawask’ is conjugated as an r-stem; in Osage it is conjugated as both r- and í-stem In Biloxi háyiⁿ is conjugated, while naxĕ´ is invariant.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources