arrive here vertitive

verb physical_motion


Proto-Siouan *ki-rhí•

Pre-Mandan *kri < **ki-rhi

Mandan krí ‘to arrive back here’ H:180

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *krí

Proto-Dakota *krí

Lakota glí RTC

Dakota hdi ‘come or arrive at home’ SRR:131b

Stoney hní PAS

Sioux Valley hdí PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *krí

Chiwere glí W:246b

Hoocąk kirí ‘arrive coming back’ KM:1846 , kiri

Proto-Dhegiha *krí RR

Omaha-Ponca gðí RTC

Kanza/Kaw lí, lí• RR

Osage gði ‘to come home; to return home’ LF:55a , gthi

Quapaw kdi ‘have come back here’ JOD

Proto-Southeastern *ki-rí


Biloxi kĭdí ‘he reached home’ D&S:197a


Tutelo wágriwa , †-kri ‘I have come back’ HW , -gili- , †-kiri ‘go home’ ES, LJF

General comment

Proto-Siouan *ki- ‘vertitive’ + *rhíarrive here’. The full form, before the various stages of derivation, is likely to have been *ki- ‘vertitive’, *re ‘here, this, now’, *hí• ‘arrive’. Thus initial syllable syncope has applied twice, once to the original derivation, re-hi•, and once to the secondary derivation, ki-r-hi•. Biloxi might be expected to have n in place of d here (cf. ‘arise (2) > get up’), but reflexes of *rh in Biloxi are too few for us to be certain.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources