that (2) > demonstrative, reference marker, relative

particle n/a


Proto-Siouan *ko


Crow ‘that’ [abstract reference] GG:65 , ko ‘referential marker (non-agent)’ GG:63 , kon ‘referential marker (agent)’ GG:63 , kón ‘there/then’ GG:66 , kúh ‘also’ GG:63

Hidatsa kuh ‘that one’ [X + c ‘clause final’] J , kuac ‘it’s that one’ [ní•ku•há ‘by yourself’] J , kua- in: kúari ‘that one (emphatic)’ J , -ku in: aku(-) ‘relativizing prefix; agentive’ J , -ku•há in: mí•ku•há ‘(I did it) by myself’ J


Mandan ko- ‘agentive, relative’ H:451, EK:15a



Biloxi ko , †ko ‘a demonstrative; used in several ways’ D&S:210a

General comment

Cf. ‘so, thus†kʔų ~ kʔǫ, and ‘beyond > other, across (1)’ and beyond > other, across (2). Hidatsa kua reflects an earlier *kuha. Note the final -h in Hidatsa kuh. Final -n in Crow should be compared with Hidatsa -ri focus marker and -ru locative.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources