so, thus

verb n/a


Proto-Siouan *kų

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-kų

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-kų

Chiwere -gų́ in: igún , †-gų́ ‘thus; this/ that way’ JGT:1646

Hoocąk -gų́ in: heegų́ ‘so, thus’ KM:468 , -gų in: hegų ‘any’ KM:468 , -gų́ in: higų́ ‘this way’ KM:309 , -gų in: higų ‘so, thus’ KM:468 , -gų́ in: gaagų́ , -gų in: gaagų, gaigų , -gų́ in: žeegų́ , -gų in: žeegų

Proto-Dhegiha *-kǫ

Omaha-Ponca -gą in: égą ‘so, like that; he’s like that’ [where X is any dem.] JEK , -gą in: X -gą ‘like X; he’s like X’ JEK

Kanza/Kaw -go in: égo ‘like, as, so’ [hagó, hágo] RR , -gó in: hagó ‘why’ MR, JOD, RR , -gó in: gagó ‘enough’ RR , -go- in: šégoną, šégonǫha ‘enough, just that number’ MR, RR

Osage -kǫ in: e-goⁿ , †-kǫ ‘verily; very’ LF:40b , -kǫ in: gá-goⁿ , †-kǫ ‘in this manner’ LF:45a , -kǫ in: thé-goⁿ , †-kǫ ‘like this, this kind’ LF:143b , -kǫ in: shé-goⁿ , †-kǫ ‘that kind or sort’ LF:130b


Catawba kún , †kų ‘this one, he, she, it’ KS:224 , kų- , †kų ‘this one, he, she, it’ KS:225 , kų- in: kúnkĕ , †kų

General comment

Loss of nasalization in Kanza/Kaw is unexplained, but cognacy is precise.

Cf. ‘that (2) > demonstrative, reference marker, relative’ and ‘beyond > other, across (1)’ and ‘beyond > other, across (2)’. Some of these entries are compounds of a particle ki with the verb ʔų ‘be, do’ as they are conjugated *m-ų, *ž-ų So this may not be a proper cognate set, or, it may represent more than one.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources