other, distant

particle physical_spatial



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *-ką


Lakota -ką in: toką́, tokhą́l ‘in another place, elsewhere; another way; another, as another person’ EB:495b , -ką- in: ítokąl ‘in another place away from; opposed to sakib’ EB:241 , -ką- in: toką́ltąhą ‘from another source, place or person’ EB:495b , -ką- in: toką́yą ‘having ref. to another place’ EB:495b


Chiwere -gą- ‘facing that way (away from speaker)’ JGT:860, DOR , -gą- in: étadagan^túhwa ‘facing that way (facing speaker)’ JGT:1150 , -gą- ‘facing this way’ JGT:2016 , -gą- in: gósigantuxwa , -gą- , -gą- in: jágantuxwa



Biloxi †kaⁿ ‘into’ D&S:205a , kaⁿ in: yahéyaⁿ kaⁿ , †kaⁿ ‘away off’ D&S:287b , -kaⁿ in: tcak, tcakaⁿ , †-kaⁿ ‘where’ D&S:261a

General comment

This is not a secure set. The Lakota and Chiwere forms should be compared with ‘beyond > other, across (1)’, ‘beyond > other, across (2)’ and perhaps also with ‘long, extended in time or space > distant, then’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources