verb physical_contact_manipulation



Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *-axua < *-uxawa (?)

Crow íaxua ‘cover’ [transitive] RG, GG:71 , aaxuá ‘hide’ [intransitive] GG:3, RGG:24 , iaxuá ‘hide’ GG:71

Hidatsa aʔaxua [transitive] J , iʔaxua [intransitive] J

Pre-Mandan *a•xawe- (?)

Mandan á•xaweʔš ‘he hid it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *nų•xwą, *ną•xwą

Proto-Dakota *naxwá

Lakota naxmá ‘hide sth.’ [1s nawáxma] RTC

Sioux Valley na••xma ~ na••xbe PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *nų́•xwą

Chiwere ną́xwą ‘conceal’ GM

Hoocąk nųųxą́wą ‘hide sth.’ KM:2401 , nųųxąwą

Proto-Dhegiha *nąxrą́

Omaha-Ponca iki noⁿxthe MAS:95

Kanza/Kaw nǫxlą́ ‘hide something’ RR , ánǫxle ‘hide something’

Osage noⁿxthoⁿ , †nąxle ‘privacy, retirement, secrecy, underhand, have a private consultation’ LF:119a

Quapaw nąxną́ ‘hide something’ JOD



Ofo uⁿsha, nuⁿsha, inuⁿsha , †ųsha, †inųsha D&S:331b

General comment

A very confusing set, probably due to varying degrees of derivational accretion. The MVS clusters show the same m ~ w ~ ð (Dakota, Chiwere, DH) set as ‘cat’, ‘corn (1)’, ‘gourd > squash’, all of which are borrowings. DH does not permit xw or xm clusters, so replacement with xr is expected here.

Other languages

  • Proto-Algonquian *kya- ‘hide, conceal’. Aubin
Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources