fly (1)

verb physical_motion



Proto-Mississipi-Valley *kiʔą́

Proto-Dakota *kiyą́

Lakota kįyĄ´ ‘to fly’ RTC

Stoney giyą́ PAS:1069

Sioux Valley kíyą́ PAS

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *-tʔą́

Chiwere gi•tʔą́

Otoe gi•thą́ RR

Hoocąk tʔą́ą ‘fly’ KM:3021 , t’ąą

Proto-Dhegiha *kią́

Omaha-Ponca gíą ~ gíyą RR

Kanza/Kaw giyą́ ‘butterfly’ RR

Osage gioⁿ´ , †kią́ ‘fly’ LF:51b

Quapaw kią́ RR



Biloxi kiyaⁿská , †kiąská ‘marsh hawk’ D&S:209b , kioⁿsná, kinóⁿusá , †kiąská ‘bat’ D&S:208b , kinápsa , †kiąská ‘bat’ ASG, D&S:203b

General comment

The frequent -y- must be epenthetic. The Chiwere, Hoocąk forms appear non- cognate but may possibly be explained with -t- a reflex of the epenthetic glide, -r- preceding ʔ. The problem here is there should be no epenthetic glide if ʔ was still present, so the development must be explained analogically, i.e. the glide is present in the first and second persons where the glottal stop is normally lost, while the glottal stop is maintained only in the third person. (Cf. ‘jump over’, ‘lay’ for comparable Hoocąk/Chiwere forms.) JOD and A.S. Gatschet apparently recorded forms of ‘bat’ in Biloxi both with and without the epenthetic glide (DS 1912).

Cf. ‘fly (2)’ for possible Algonquian influences.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources