brother (3) wBrel

noun social_kin


Proto-Siouan [old reconstruction only]

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *i-tá•ru

Crow isaalí ‘woman’s older brother’ RG, GG:89, RGG:22

Hidatsa itá•ru ‘woman’s older brother’ J

Proto-Southeastern *(i-)tą́ro


Biloxi tandó, tándo , †tądó ‘woman’s younger brother’ D&S:269b


Tutelo wital ‘my elder brother’ H

General comment

The reconstructible meaning of this term in Proto-Southeastern depends on the sex of Hewitt’s Tutelo informant. If it was a woman, the meaning ‘woman’s elder bro.’ is justified. Any Proto-Siouan reconstructions must be done by comparing both variants of the term. (Cf. ‘brother (4) wBrel’). The two entries taken together suggest something like Proto-Siouan *i-htą́-wRo or *i-htį́-wRo, where *wRo is ‘male’, q.v. Support for this analysis comes from the irregular treatment of wr in DH and Chiwere/Hoocąk in just these kin terms and ‘male’, suggesting that the kin terms were transparent compounds at the time ‘male’ was reshaped.

The -htą- ~ -htį- alternation might arise from an earlier construction of the form *i-hta-įwro, where the second morpheme represents a fused ‘alienable’ prefix and the third morpheme is the actual root for ‘elder brother’. The long vowel in Crow/Hidatsa can derive from loss of intervocallic w, cf. ‘basket’. Thus pre-Hidatsa *i-ta-waro, with normal raising of short o to u.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources