belt, sash

noun physical_artefact_dress


Proto-Siouan *i-hpi(•)-ra

Pre-Mandan *í-hpVrak

Mandan íhparak ‘belt’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *ihpi(•)-ra

Proto-Dakota *iphí_yakA

Lakota iphíyake ‘belt’ RTC , iphíyaka ‘belt’ EJ , iphíyakayA ‘to belt’ EB:232a, EJ , iphíyaka ‘gird one’s self’

Dakota ipiyaka , †iphiyaka ‘belt’ WM:16b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *iphi-rake

Chiwere iphireha ‘belt’ JOD , ipireha ‘belt’ RR , phi•rú•ra•ge ~ phi•yú•ra•ge

Hoocąk hipirák ‘belt’ KM:984 , hipirak

Proto-Dhegiha *íhpi-ra

Omaha-Ponca ippiðage ‘belt’ JOD , íp̣iðage

Kanza/Kaw íppiya ‘belt, girdle’ RR , üppüya ‘belt’ JOD

Osage íp̣itha , †ǘhpüða ‘belt’ LF:78a , ühpüða , †ǘhpüða ‘belt’ JOD

Quapaw ippidáttą ‘belt’ RR , íppidattą ‘belt’ JOD , íppida ‘put on a belt’ JOD

General comment

The Mandan form is interesting, as the vowel between p and r is synchronically epenthetic. That this is a recent development is shown by the fact that the underlying form must have a three-consonant cluster, hpr, which is highly exceptional. Thus Mandan appears to have syncopated an earlier vowel here. This process of syncope can be seen in synchronic verbal paradigms, where underlying vowels between obstruent and sonorant consonants are replaced by a harmonized epenthetic vowel. The Kanza/Kaw and Osage forms with ü recorded by JOD are not accounted for but are perhaps internal developments. The Chiwere forms, however, suggest that more complex morphology is involved in the DH rounding. i- probably instrumental; -hpi- (or ihpi) relates to the waist (Cf. ‘liver’); -ru- in those languages where it exists (Chiwere, Kanza/Kaw, Osage?) ‘hand, instrumental’; -ra- verb stem ‘gird’. -ra- is normally the conjugated portion. The final -kE is the derivational qualifier that frequently marks nominal constructions.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources