across > over, beyond, above

adverb physical_spatial


Proto-Siouan *ake

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *áki- , *ake

Crow áakkaa ‘across’ [-haa adverbializer] GG:1, GG:64 , á•kako, á•k’e ‘outside, on the other side, across’ L:8 , á•kirikyó• ‘on this side’ L:11

Hidatsa áki- in: ákipi ‘harnessed; a team horse’ J , áki- in: ákiphe• ‘to lay sth. over or across sth.’ J


Mandan á•ki ‘over, on top’ RTC , á•kiha• ‘over, on top, above’ RTC



Chiwere ą́githa ‘over’ GM , agrí , †ag- ‘across; over’ JGT:39 , ág- , †ag- ‘on the other side’ JGT:40 , ág- in: ágrida , †ag-

Hoocąk age- in: agejá ‘across’ KM:10 , aak- in: aakeja ‘across the river’ KM:10 , ák in: nįįʔák ‘across the lake’ KM:10 , ak in: nįį'ak , áge- in: teágeja , aak- in: tee aakeja



Biloxi aki- in: akida , †aki- ‘across’ D&S:171a , ákĭ- in: ákĭduxtĕ´ , †aki- ‘to cross, as a stream’ D&S:171a , ákĭ- in: áⁿxu ákĭduxtĕ´ , †aki- ‘(lying) across a stone’ D&S:178a


Catawba akę•- ‘a long time ago’ KS:150 , akę•- in: akę•hire ‘far away’ KS:98 , αkę́•- , αkę́•- in: αkę́•rirɛ

General comment

Hidatsa ákipi ‘harnessed; a team horse’ is from aki- ‘across’ + pE ‘lying’. Hidatsa short a- is sure. Length in Crow and Mandan may be due to influence of a•ka. Cf. ‘far, other, across’ and ‘demonstrative (2)Osage and Quapaw have ákki- ‘across’, but the geminate shouldn’t match a plain stop in the other languages, so we can’t consider these cognate. Cf. ‘teen formative’.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources