noun physical_somatic_body_part


Proto-Siouan *(a)-į-xkéte


Mandan ąxkít ‘shoulder’ RTC


Proto-Dhegiha *įkhéte

Omaha-Ponca įkhéde ‘shoulder’ JOD

Kanza/Kaw ikhéǰe ‘shoulder; 2 parts of a tent’ JOD, RR

Osage įkšéce , †įkhéce ‘shoulder’ JOD, RR

Quapaw įkhétte ‘shoulder’ RR



Biloxi axĕ´ , †axé ‘shoulder’ D&S:172b , axe´ya, kŭdĕsk axe , †axéya ‘wings’ D&S:172b

General comment

Cf. ‘ball joint > shoulder’, ‘arm’. Mandan (and perhaps Biloxi) a- likely is a compounded reflex of *á•-(re)arm’. Mandan xk corresponds to DH kh frequently. The relationship of the Biloxi form, if any, is unclear. Note especially that two of the terms for ‘shoulder’ have an irregular *(h)į-. This suggests that this may not be merely an irregular form of the possessive *i-. More specifically, it suggests that the other term for ‘shoulder’ in Dakotan, hį-yete, q.v., is probably not borrowed from Hoocąk but rather also contains this older, prefixed portion that refers to the shoulder. While we have no doubt that Mandan and the DH forms are (irregularly) cognate, we are dubious about the cognacy of Biloxi, as Proto-Siouan /*xk/ is usually preserved there.

While Mandan xk can be organic, it can also derive from a morphologically produced k + k.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources