speak, talk

verb social_communication


Proto-Siouan *i-(r)ʔe

Proto-Crow-Hidatsa *ireʔ

Crow ilíi ‘talk’ GG:87, RGG:51

Hidatsa iréʔ ‘speak, talk’ J

Pre-Mandan *kirąʔ-

Mandan kirą́ʔroʔš ‘he told it’ RTC

Proto-Mississipi-Valley *i-(r)ʔe

Proto-Dakota *iyA

Lakota i-yA´

Dakota ‘speak’ SRR:169b

Proto-Hoocąk-Chiwere *itʔé

Chiwere itʔá LWR:13 , utʔá, učʔé GM

Hoocąk hi-tʔe KM:1099 , hit’e

Proto-Dhegiha *íe

Omaha-Ponca íe, íye ‘speak, talk; language’ RR

Kanza/Kaw íe ‘speak, talk; language’ RR

Osage íe ‘speak, talk; language’ RR

Quapaw íe, íye ‘speak, talk; language’ RR, JOD


Proto-Biloxi-Ofo *i-(r)é

Biloxi kíyĕ , †-íe ‘say that to or about him’ D&S:189a, EB , adĕ´ , †adé ‘to talk, speech, language’ D&S:190a

Ofo ilĕ´ , †ilé ‘speak’ D&S:324a

General comment

Here, presumably, the *(r) would have been epenthetic in those first and second person forms in which normally disappears (cf. ‘use, do with’). The *r is then extended analogically to 3rd person forms where normally remains, and the resultant cluster *rʔ > *tʔ in Chiwere, Hoocąk in parallel with *rh > *th. For other examples of the same phenomenon cf. ‘jump’, ‘lay’, ‘fly (1)’; v. also ‘do, make’, ‘say’. The Hidatsa form conjugates with what appear to be inalienable possessive pronouns. This verb is the only example of this odd inflectional pattern.

Language Cognate Phonetic Siouan Meaning Comment Sources